What Are Conjunctions?
ConjunctionsConjunctions are words used to connect words, phrases, or clauses. There are three types of conjunctions:
- Coordinating Conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions join like with like. For example, they join a noun with another noun or an adjective with another adjective. The most common ones are "and," "but," and "or." There are seven in total: "for," "and," "nor," "but," "or," "yet," and "so." (You can remember them using the mnemonic F.A.N.B.O.Y.S.)
- Subordinating Conjunctions. Subordinating conjunctions join subordinate clauses to main clauses. Common examples are "although," "because," "if," "since," "unless," "until," and "while."
- Correlative Conjunctions. Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to join alternatives or equal elements. The most common pairs are "either/or," "neither/nor," and "not only/but also."
Click on Two Conjunctions
Easy Examples of ConjunctionsHere are some examples of coordinating conjunctions (shaded):
- The comment was blunt but effective. (The conjunction joins two adjectives.)
- Familiarity breeds contempt and children. (The conjunction joins two nouns.)
- We'll stay in the car until the hail stops.
- I'm leaving if Lee starts telling us about that bass again.
- I could neither laugh nor cry.
- She was not only smart but also beautiful.
Real-Life Examples of Coordinating ConjunctionsHere are some real-life examples of coordinating conjunctions (shaded):
- If a man should challenge me to a duel, I would take him kindly and forgivingly by the hand and lead him to a quiet place to kill him. (Writer Mark Twain) (Here, the first conjunction joins two adverbs ("kindly and forgivingly"). The second joins two verbs ("take and lead").)
- The best solutions are often simple yet unexpected. (Rock musician Julian Casablancas)
- He is richest who is content with the least, for content is the wealth of nature. (Greek philosopher Socrates)
A Video SummaryHere is a 12-minute video summarizing this lesson on conjunctions.
Real-Life Examples of Subordinating ConjunctionsThe role of the subordinating conjunction and subordinate clause is to establish a time, a place, a reason, a condition or a concession for the main clause. Below are some real-life examples of subordinating conjunctions. (In these examples, the subordinating conjunctions are highlighted and the subordinate clause is bolded.)
- I find television very educating. Every time somebody turns on the set, I go into the other room and read a book. (Comedian Groucho Marx) (The subordinate clause establishes a time for the main clause.)
- Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also a love of humanity. (Greek physician Hippocrates) (The subordinate clause establishes a place for the main clause.)
- People are more violently opposed to fur than leather because it's safer to harass rich women than motorcycle gangs. (The subordinate clause establishes a reason for the main clause.)
- Man is ready to die for an idea, provided that idea is not quite clear to him. (Author Paul Eldridge) (The subordinate clause establishes a condition for the main clause.)
- I'm always ready to learn, although I do not always like being taught. (Sir Winston Churchill) (The subordinate clause establishes a concession for the main clause.)
Read more about subordinating conjunctions.
Real-Life Examples of Correlative Conjunctions
- Flowers are restful to look at. They have neither emotions nor conflicts. (Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud)
- Education is not only the filling of a pail but also the lighting of a fire. (Irish poet William Butler Yeats)
- It is not death but dying which is terrible. (Author Henry Fielding)
Why Should I Care about Coordinating Conjunctions?There are two common questions related to coordinating conjunctions:
(Question 1) Do you put a comma before "and"?Mostly no but sometimes yes. Unfortunately, the answer to this question isn't short. Here is a summary of the rules:
The Rule for Two ItemsWhen "and" (or any coordinating conjunction) joins two items, don't use a comma.
- Lee has eaten all the cheese and biscuits.
- The Bakerloo line runs between Elephant and Castle, and Harrow and Wealdstone. (Using a comma with two list items is fairly common. It happens when the list items themselves contain commas. In this example, the comma before "and" helps readers to spot the list items faster. They could work it out, but the comma helps.)
- I used to watch Colombo, and Cagney and Lacey. (This example also has two list items: "Colombo" and "Cagney and Lacey." This time, the comma is more important because the list items could feasibly be "Colombo and Cagney" and "Lacey".)
There's an important exception to this rule though. It's important exception because it's common.
The Exception to the Rule for Two ItemsWhen your coordinate conjunction joins two (or more) independent clauses (i.e., ones that could stand alone as individual sentences), then use a comma.
- I like sweet things, but I prefer savoury dishes. (Here, the clauses being joined (shown in bold) could stand alone as sentences. They are independent clauses. That's why there is a comma before "but.")
- I like sweet things but prefer savoury dishes. (This is similar, but "prefer savoury dishes" is not an independent clause. It's not a sentence. That's why there's no comma before "but.")
- The lion and the calf shall lie down together, but the calf won't get much sleep. (Film director Woody Allen) (The first coordinating conjunction ("and") joins two nouns, so no comma is required. The second ("but") joins two independent clauses, so a comma is required.)
- Basically, my wife was immature. I'd be at home in my bath, and she'd come in and sink my boats. (Woody Allen) (The first coordinating conjunction ("and") joins two independent clauses, so a comma is required. The second ("and") joins two verbs, so no comma is required.)
- Craig caught a bass and Lee caught a goby.
- Craig caught a bass, and Lee caught a goby. (Both versions are acceptable.)
- The man caught the boy and the girl caught the dog. (For a fleeting moment, your readers will think that the man caught "the boy and the girl". You should try to write in a way that doesn't cause your readers to stutter.)
- The man caught the boy, and the girl caught the dog. (Your readers will not need to re-adjust now. This example captures why we need a comma before a coordinating conjunction that joins two independent clauses.)
The Rule for Three or More ItemsWhen there are three or more list items, life starts getting a little more complicated because there is no unified position on whether to use a comma with the coordinating conjunction.
Some people will write this:
- Bacon, eggs, and tomatoes (The comma before the "and" is called an Oxford Comma. This is the convention followed by most (but not all) Americans.)
- Bacon, eggs and tomatoes (This is the convention followed by most (but not all) Brits. The most notable exception is the Oxford University Press, after which the Oxford Comma is named.)
Advocates of the Oxford Comma claim it eliminates ambiguity. They have a point. The Oxford Comma is certainly useful for showing the separations between the list items.
- It's a good price for a mug of tea, bacon and eggs and toast (Without an Oxford Comma, this could mean (1) a mug of tea, (2) bacon, and (3) eggs and toast.)
- It's a good price for a mug of tea, bacon and eggs, and toast (With an Oxford Comma, the list items are clear.)
- Jack left the pub with John (a policeman) and Simon.
- Jack left the pub with John, a policeman, and Simon. (With an Oxford Comma, this could feasibly refer to two people (like in the top example) or three people.)
- This book is dedicated to my parents, Ayn Rand and God. (This could feasibly be read as "…my parents (Ayn Rand and God)". The same "ambiguity" wouldn't exist with an Oxford Comma before "and.")
Well, actually, be flexibly consistent. If your chosen convention creates ambiguity, break the convention. There's only one 100% rule when it comes to the Oxford Comma: clarity trumps convention.
In other words, everyone (regardless of what convention they follow) should write this when they mean four people:
- I have the twins, Joe, and Callum. (for four people)
(Question 2) Can you start a sentence with "And" or "But?Despite what you may have been told at school, you can start a sentence with a conjunction like "And," "Or" and "But."
Bear in mind though that a conjunction at the start of a sentence looks quite striking, so don't do it too often (it gets annoying quickly). However, you should definitely keep this practice in your back pocket to create an impactful start to your sentence. Think of it like this:
"And" is an impactful way of saying "In addition"
"But" is an impactful way of saying "However"
"Or" is an impactful way of saying "Put another way"
Here are some real-life examples:
- And let every other power know that this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house. (US President John F Kennedy)
- I've had a perfectly wonderful evening. But, this wasn't it. (Comedian Groucho Marx)
So, the real question is not whether you can use a coordinating conjunction to start a sentence but whether "and," "but" and "or" are conjunctive adverbs as well as coordinating conjunctions. And, it seems they are.
Therefore, should you put a comma after your conjunction like you do with a conjunctive adverb? Well, that's up to you. If you want a pause, go for it. If you don't, don’t.
- It is better to be beautiful than to be good. But, it is better to be good than to be ugly. (Playwright Oscar Wilde) (The comma after "But" provides a pause. It's not a grammar thing. It's a controlling-the-flow-of-text thing.)
- And I will always love you. (Singer Whitney Houston) (There's no pause for Whitney.)
Why Should I Care about Subordinating Conjunctions?As a native English speaker, you don't need to worry about whether your subordinating conjunction is heading up a clause that establishes a time, a place, a reason, a condition, or a concession. You'll do that bit naturally.
The most common question related to subordinating conjunctions is whether to offset the subordinate clause with a comma or not. Here's the guidance:
When a subordinate clause starts a sentence, separate it from the main clause with a comma. In each example, the subordinating conjunction is shaded and the subordinate clause is bold.
- If you shoot at mimes, should you use a silencer? (Comedian Steven Wright)
- Now that I'm over sixty, I'm veering toward respectability. (Actress Shelley Winters)
When a subordinate clause ends a sentence, you can drop the comma.
- Should you use a silencer if you shoot at mimes?
- I'm veering toward respectability now that I'm over sixty.
As a rule, try to resist using a comma before a subordinating conjunction. However, if you want to create a pause for effect, then a comma can be used.
- Money is better than poverty, if only for financial reasons. (Film director Woody Allen)
- Man is ready to die for an idea, provided that idea is not quite clear to him.
Let's complicate the issue a bit. The rule that states "do not use a comma when subordinate clause follows the independent clause" is not really the rule. The real rule is "use a comma if the clause is nonessential." The problem, however, is that it's really difficult to decide whether an adverbial clause is essential or nonessential. (It is much easier with adjective clauses.) As the vast majority of adverbial clauses are essential, it's pretty safe, but not entirely safe, to declare that a post-positioned (as it's called when it's at the back) subordinate clause clause isn't preceded by a comma.
Read more about commas with subordinate (or dependent) clauses.
Why Should I Care about Correlative Conjunctions?Correlative conjunctions are useful for keeping your writing succinct. They not only provide a succinct structure to say two things but also express how those two things relate to each other.
Generally, correlative conjunctions don't cause native English speakers too much grief, but there are four noteworthy issues associated with correlative conjunctions.
(Issue 1) Keep a parallel structure.Correlative conjunctions come in pairs. You must use the same type of word after each one in the pair.
- Lee not only likes pies but also cakes. (Here, the first conjunction in the pair sits before a verb ("likes"), but the second sits before a noun ("cakes"). It's not parallel. It's untidy.)
- He should either sell his watch or his car. (Here, the first conjunction sits before a verb ("sell"), but the second sits before a noun ("his car"). It's not parallel. Untidy.)
- Lee likes not only pies but also cakes.
- He should sell either his watch or his car. (In these examples, the first and second conjunctions sit before nouns. Both examples now have parallel structures. Tidy.)
- Lee not only likes pies but also likes cakes.
- He should either pawn his watch or sell his car. (In these examples, the first and second conjunctions sit before verbs. Parallel. Tidy.)
(Issue 2) Don't use commas with correlative conjunctions. (Beware the exceptions!)Sometimes, writers are unsure whether to use a comma with correlative conjunctions. This question arises most often with the pairing "not only/but also." Here's the rule: Don't use commas with correlative conjunctions.
- Lee likes not only pies, but also cakes.
- As a father has compassion on his children, so God has compassion on those who fear him. (Bible, Psalm 103:13)
- Not only does Lee like pies, but he also likes cakes. (Note that the subject of the independent clause ("he") splits "but also." This is necessary because the word "but" is playing two roles. We know it is part of the correlative conjunction "not only/but also," but, in this sentence, it's also a coordinating conjunction. Remember that coordinating conjunctions (e.g., "and," "or," "but") are used to join like elements. Here, it's joining two independent clauses.)
- Lee likes not only pies, especially cheese and onion, but also cakes. (Here, the commas are offsetting "especially cheese and onion," which is just some additional information (called a parenthesis). So, the comma before "but also" has got nothing to do with correlative conjunctions.)
(Issue 3) Be careful with subject-verb agreement.When the pairing "either/or" or "neither/nor" features in the subject of a verb, the verb is singular if both elements are singular.
- Neither the inspector nor the constable was available for comment. (Both elements ("the inpector" and "the constable") are singular, so the verb ("was") is singular; i.e., using "were" would be wrong.)
Convention 1: The Proximity Rule. Under this convention, the element nearest the verb determines whether it's singular or plural.
- Neither the inspector nor the constables were available for comment. (The element nearest the verb ("constables") is plural, so the verb ("were") is plural.)
- Neither the inspectors nor the constable were available for comment. (Here, the first element ("inspectors") is plural, so the verb is plural. This would be wrong using The Proximity Rule.)
- Either the budgies or the cat have to go. (This is correct under the Logic Rule but wrong under the Proximity Rule.)
- Either the car or the budgies have to go. (Here, the plural element is nearest to the verb. This is now correct under both rules. Winner.)
(Issue 4) Don't forget that "neither/nor" plays a negative role.Be aware that "neither/nor" plays a negative role in your sentence. Be careful not to use a double negative.
- We did not discuss neither the flooding nor the landslide. (This is a double negative.)
- We discussed neither the flooding nor the landslide.
- We did not discuss either the flooding or the landslide.
Interactive ExerciseHere are three randomly selected questions from a larger exercise, which can be edited, printed to create an exercise worksheet, or sent via email to friends or students.
Take another test on conjunctions.