What Are Vowels?
VowelsThe letters A, E, I, O, and U are called vowels. The other letters in the alphabet are called consonants.
More about Vowels
- The word Iouea (a genus of sea sponges) contains all five vowels and no other letters. (Being the name of a genus (i.e., a proper noun), it is written with a capital letter. Also of note, it is the shortest word with four syllables.)
- The words abstemious and facetious contain all five vowels in order.
A vowel sound (but not necessarily a vowel in the actual spelling) will be present in a syllable.
Is Y a Vowel?So, is Y a vowel? Sometimes it is, and sometimes it isn't, which is why it is often called a semi-vowel. The argument for classifying Y as a consonant (which most do) is based on this: When Y is a vowel, it's really just an I. When it's a consonant, it's being itself.
Short and Long VowelsIn English, the sounds of the vowels are group into two pairs: short vowels and long vowels. The short vowels are pronounced as follows:
- "a" as in "bat"
- "e" as in "bed"
- "i" as in "bit"
- "o" as in "bog"
- "u" as in "but"
- "a" as in "haze"
- "e" as in "he"
- "i" as in "hi"
- "o" as in "hope"
- "u" as in "human"
Some alternative spellings for the short "e" vowel:
Try our drag-and-drop test on the types of syllable.
Why Should I Care about Vowels?On the assumption you can spell, here are two more good reasons to think more carefully about vowels.
(Reason 1) Be clear on when to use "an" and "a."Use "an" (not "a") before a vowel sound. The important word here is sound.
Just to be clear, the ruling is NOT as follows: "Use 'an' before a vowel."
This is the ruling: "Use 'an' before a vowel sound."
- an apple. a apple. ("An" is correct because apple starts with a vowel sound (and a vowel for that matter).)
- an RTA. a RTA ("An" is correct because RTA starts with a vowel sound (ar), even though the first letter is not a vowel.)
- An unidentified man with a unicorn tattoo rented a house an hour ago. (Even though they start with the same three letters, unidentified and unicorn attract different indefinite articles. Similarly, hour attracts "an" while house attracts "a." Remember that it's all about the sound of the first letter.)
- Becoming a eunuch wasn't a one-off deal – it was a two-off deal. (Eunuch and one-off start with vowels but with consonant sounds.)
(Reason 2) Use assonance to add rhythm and musicality to your writing.Assonance is a literary technique created by repeating the same vowel sound in neighboring words. It is used by lyricists and poets to encourage their readers and listeners to consider the near rhyme created by the assonance. (NB: Assonance contrasts with consonance, which is a similar literary technique in which nearby words repeat the same consonant sound.)
Here are some examples of assonance:
- His fleet feet seem impossible to beat.
- "A host, of golden daffodils" (Extract from "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud" by poet William Wordsworth)
- "Hear the mellow wedding bells" (Extract from "The Bells" by American writer Edgar Allen Poe)
Here, for comparison, is an example of consonance:
- I earn my keep by cracking locks or picking a pockets.