Subjunctive Mood

by Craig Shrives

What Is the Subjunctive Mood?

The subjunctive mood is the verb form used to explore a hypothetical situation (e.g., "If I were you") or to express a wish, a demand, or a suggestion (e.g., "I demand he be present").

Easy Examples of the Subjunctive Mood

  • If it were me, I'd go.
  • (As this explores a hypothetical situation, "was" becomes "were.")
  • I wish it were real.
  • (As this expresses a wish, "was" becomes "were.")
  • It is imperative that the game begin at once.
  • (As this expresses a demand, "begins" becomes "begin.")
  • I propose he work full time.
  • (As this expresses a suggestion, "works" becomes "work.")

Table of Contents

  • Verb Changes with the Subjunctive Mood
  • Verbs That Attract the Subjunctive Mood
  • Adjectives That Attract the Subjunctive Mood
  • Set Phrases Featuring the Subjunctive Mood
  • What Is Mood?
  • Video Lesson
  • Why the Subjunctive Mood Is Important
  • Printable Test
subjunctive mood example

Verb Changes with the Subjunctive Mood

This table summarizes how a verb changes when it's in the subjunctive mood.
Normal Form Normal Example Subjunctive Form Subjunctive Example
"am," "are," "is"
("to be" in the present tense)
I am available.
You are lucky.
She is here.
"be" I demand that I be available.
I ask that you be truthful.
It's essential that she be here.
(third person singular of "to have" in the present tense)
She has a chance. "have" I demand she have a chance.
(first person and third person singular of "to be" in the past tense)
I was free.
He was happy.
"were" If I were free, I'd go.
I wish he were happy.
"prepares," "works," "sings," etc.
(third-person-singular verbs in the present tense, i.e., ones ending "s")
She makes sushi. "prepare," "work," "sing," etc.
(remove the s)
I propose she make sushi.

Verbs That Attract the Subjunctive Mood

The following verbs often attract the subjunctive mood:
  • "to command," "to order," "to wish," "to suggest," "to recommend," "to ask," "to insist," and "to demand."
  • (These can be remembered with the mnemonic COWS-RAID.)
verbs that take the subjunctive mood in English
Real-life examples:
  • All we ask of a president is that he be likeable. We seem to have given up on the Pentagon's corrupt use of our tax dollars. (Author Donella Meadows)
  • Saddam Hussein systematically violated every UN resolution that demanded he disarm and destroy his chemical and biological weapons. (US politician Henry Waxman)
  • Don't make election popularity a matter of which candidate hires the most creative propagandists. Insist that it be a running conversation with the public. (Actor Ron Howard)
  • If you are a dog and your owner suggests that you wear a sweater suggest that he wear a tail. (Author Fran Lebowitz)

Adjectives That Attract the Subjunctive Mood

The following adjectives – especially when used with the word "that" – often attract the subjunctive mood:
  • "important," "necessary," "imperative," "crucial," and "essential"
  • (These can be remembered with the mnemonic IN-ICE.)
adjectives that take the subjunctive mood in English
Real-life examples:
  • It is necessary to the happiness of man that he be mentally faithful to himself. (Political activist Thomas Paine)
  • When unseen forces come together to provide a man with the strength and capacity to achieve something great, it is essential that he use the time responsibly and timely. (Author Eyler Robert Coates)

Set Phrases Featuring the Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive mood also features in some well-known terms.
  • God bless you.
  • (I wish that "God bless you".)
  • God save the Queen.
  • (I wish that "God save the Queen".)
  • May The Force be with you. (Star Wars)
  • The real scientist is ready to bear hardship and, if needs be, starvation rather than let anyone dictate which direction his work must take. (Biochemist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi)

What Is Mood?

Mood is the form a verb takes to show how it is to be regarded (e.g., as a fact, a command, a wish, an uncertainty).

There are three major moods in English:
  • The Indicative Mood. This states facts or asks questions. For example:
    • They are playing the guitar.
    • Are they playing the guitar?
  • The Imperative Mood. This expresses a command or a request. For example:
    • Play the guitar!
    • Please play the guitar.
  • The Subjunctive Mood. This shows a wish or doubt. Some more examples:
    • I suggest that Lee play the guitar.
    • I propose that Lee be asked to play the guitar.
    • If I were Lee, I would play the guitar.
Here is a video summarizing this lesson on the subjunctive mood.

Are you a visual learner? Do you prefer video to text? Here is a list of all our grammar videos.

When used in idioms and set phrases (e.g., "If I were you," "God bless you"), the subjunctive mood does not create issues for writers. However, outside set terms, verbs in the subjunctive mood sometimes sound awkward. Mostly, though, they sound right to the native ear.

The subjunctive mood definitely has its place in English grammar, but we shouldn't pretend it isn't starting to fade. And, it's starting to fade for two understandable reasons: firstly, it isn't particularly useful to convey meaning (i.e., the meaning often remains clear if it isn't used), and, secondly, the rules for using it are tricky. In fact, the subjunctive mood is pretty inefficient as a language tool, and, as a language develops, efficiency always trumps dogma.

That said though, verbs in the subjunctive mood still sound aesthetically pleasing to the native ear, and nobody has started in earnest to condone subjunctive-mood avoidance, so you should use it.

Here's some guidance: If you naturally opt for the verb in the subjunctive mood, use it. If you're unsure whether the normal verb or the subjunctive verb sounds better, use the subjunctive one. If you can't bear how the subjunctive one sounds, have the confidence to use the normal verb.

We all have different thresholds for what sounds awkward and right, but here are some examples to clarify the guidance.
  • I demand that he be present.
  • (If you naturally go for "be," leave it.)
  • It is essential that he is/be there.
  • (If you can't decide between the normal verb ("is") and the subjunctive ("be"), go for the subjunctive one.)
  • I must insist that he lower/lowers his voice.
  • (If you can't bear how the subjunctive verb ("lower") sounds, have the confidence to use the normal one.)
An uncomfortable truth? Even if your subjunctive verb doesn't sound better, using it is a bit of an opportunity to show off...and to smugly say "it's in the subjunctive mood" if questioned on it. Winner.

Help Us Improve Grammar Monster

  • Do you disagree with something on this page?
  • Did you spot a typo?

Find Us Quicker!

  • When using a search engine (e.g., Google, Bing), you will find Grammar Monster quicker if you add #gm to your search term.