When to Use a Period (with Examples)
Using Periods (Punctuation)A period (called a "full stop" in the United Kingdom) is a punctuation mark used:
- At the end of a declarative sentence (i.e., a sentence that makes statement). For example:
- Lee likes pies.
- At the end of an imperative sentence (i.e., an order) that is not forceful enough for an exclamation mark. For example:
- Please keep off the grass.
- In an abbreviation (including initialisms and contractions).
- The story is on every major news channel, e.g., C.N.N. and B.B.C.
Examples of Periods at the End of Declarative SentencesPeriods are used at the end of declarative sentences. (A declarative sentence states a fact.)
- Last words are for fools who haven't said enough. (Revolutionary socialist Karl Marx)
- I never forget a face, but in your case I'll be glad to make an exception. (Comedian Groucho Marx)
- I am a Marxist of the Groucho tendency. (Anon)
Examples of Periods at the End of Imperative SentencesPeriods (full stops) are used at the end of imperative sentences that are not forceful enough to warrant an an exclamation marks. (An imperative sentence gives a command.)
- Write again soon.
- Advise no one to go to war or marry. (Spanish proverb)
- Avoid a cure that is worse than the disease. (Greek storyteller Aesop)
Examples of Full Stops in AbbreviationsHere are some examples of periods in abbreviations:
- Prof. Munro
Read more about the US and UK conventions for ending a contraction with a period (full stop).
Why Should I Care about Periods?It's just a small dot, but the period can be a real grammar villain. Here are six good reasons to think more carefully about periods.
(Reason 1) Once you've written a sentence, put a period. Don't put a comma and write a new sentence.The period is responsible for the most common mistake corrected by proof-readers: the run-on sentence. A run-on sentence is typically caused by writing a sentence, incorrectly putting a comma and then writing another sentence.
Your idea is likely to consist of several sentences. Once you've satisfied the criteria for a sentence, you must end it correctly (usually with a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark) even if you haven't finished making your point. It's okay to make your point using several sentences. (Don't forget that a sentence is grammatically complete, expresses a complete thought and contains a subject and a verb (even if one is implied). In the examples below, all the commas should be periods.
- Guard your cheese pies, they're Lee's favourite.
- This suspense is terrible, I hope it will last. (Irish poet Oscar Wilde)
- I have a wife and kids, eat them! (Homer Simpson)
- The answers to life's problems aren't at the bottom of a bottle, they're on TV. (Homer Simpson)
(Reason 2) Use a period (not a question mark) to end a declarative sentence that contains an indirect question.A declarative sentence can include an indirect question. Do not be tempted to use a question mark. Both of these examples should end with periods.
- She asked if it were true?
- I wonder if a soldier ever does mend a bullet hole in his coat? (Pioneering nurse Clara Barton)
(Reason 3) Be confident with using and not using periods with contractions.Writers are often unsure whether to write "Mr Smith" or "Mr. Smith," or "Dr Jones" or "Dr. Jones." If you're following US convention, there's nothing to think about. Always put a period (e.g., "Mr. Smith," "Dr. Jones," "Prof. Munro").
It's not so simple for Brits. If the last letter of the contraction (e.g., "Mr") is the same as the last letter of the whole word (e.g., "Mister"), don't use a period (full stop). If the last letters are different, use one.
- Mister > Mr (The last letters are the same.)
- Professor > Prof. (The last letters are different.)
- Read paras 1-9 and para. 23. (The last letters of paras and paragraphs are the same, but the last letters of para and paragraph aren't.)
(Reason 4) Don't use two periods at the end of a sentence.If a sentence ends with an abbreviation that ends with a period, don't use a period to mark the end of the sentence. In other words, one period suffices.
- I need milk, bread, cheese, etc..
- She moved from I.T.V. after an irresistible offer from the B.B.C.. (Logically, these are correct, but they're too unwieldy.)
- Will the judge find in favour of the B.B.C.? (This is correct, but it looks scruffy. To avoid this, use BBC instead of B.B.C.)
- You were meant to be here at 4 o'clock a.m. not p.m.!
- Standing tall and with the Lord's Prayer mumbling across our lips, we entered the chamber...." (This ends in four dots: three for the ellipsis and one to end the sentence.)
(Reason 5) Write uppercase abbreviations without periods and lowercase ones with.Often, you have a choice whether to write your abbreviation with periods. In other words, you can write C.N.N. or CNN, or e.g. or eg. Whatever format you choose, be consistent.
By far the most common format is to write uppercase abbreviations without periods (for example, CNN, LRS) and to write lowercase abbreviations with periods (for example, a.m., e.g.).
There's just one rule that might trump your striving for consistency with formatting abbreviations. If the abbreviation is a company name, copy the format the company uses. (Hey, don't expend too many calories worrying about this point. Very few companies use periods in their names. I mean almost none.)
(Reason 6) Be careful not to omit the last period of an abbreviation.If you choose to use periods in your abbreviations, don't forget to give the last letter a period too.
- "M.O.T While You Wait" (This is a common sign in the UK.)
- "M.O.T. While You Wait"