What Is Irony? (Definition with Examples)

by Craig Shrives


Irony is when the reality of something is different to the expectation it generates. There are three types of irony:

irony examples
  • Verbal Irony. Verbal irony is an expression (often delivered sarcastically or humorously) to express the opposite of its literal meaning. (It is a synonym for sarcasm.)
  • Dramatic Irony. Dramatic irony is an event the significance of which is known only to observers (typically, the audience) and not the participants (typically, the actors).
  • Situational Irony. Situational irony is an event that occurs seemingly in mockery of the circumstances.

Easy Examples of Irony

Here are some easy examples of the three different types of irony:

Verbal Irony:
  • That's just what I needed. (i.e., It isn't.)
  • I'm so glad it's raining. (i.e., I'm not.)
Dramatic Irony:
  • There's no evil witch here.
  • (A typical "behind you" moment in a pantomime is an example of dramatic irony.)
Situational Irony:
  • Let's examine the words hyphenated and non-hyphenated.
  • The most shoplifted book in America is the Bible.
  • Your the best English teacher ever.
  • (Should be you're.)

A Video Summary

Here is a short video summarizing the different types of irony:

Yet More Examples of Irony...

Here are some more examples of irony:

Example of Verbal Irony

Verbal irony is like sarcasm.
  • "On a scale of 1 to 10, how old was Michael Jackson's boyfriend?"
  • (Here, nice means not classy.)

Example of Dramatic Irony

Dramatic irony occurs when the audience knows something the characters don't.
  • O my love, my wife! Death, that hath sucked the honey of thy breath hath had no power yet upon thy beauty. Thou art not conquered. Beauty’s ensign yet is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks. (Romeo Montague from William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet)
  • (Romeo wrongly believes Juliet is dead and prepares to take poison to join her.)

Examples of Situational Irony

Situational irony is an event that happens in mockery of the circumstances.
  • James Bellamy, who has campaigned for years against the Dangerous Dogs Act, was hospitalised after a vicious attack by his neighbour's dog.
  • Mr Paul Jones arrived too late to chair a town-planning meeting due to the roads being grid locked with traffic.

Why Should I Care about Irony?

If you're analysing someone else's writing and they've used irony, you ought to recognise it.

Remember that irony covers far more than just situational irony. Comments and events with a twist, an element of unexpectedness, or some malintent can usually be shoe-horned into one of the irony types. It is not uncommon for people to argue whether something is an example of irony.

See Also

Glossary of grammatical terms