Who is the subject of a verb.|
Whom is never the subject of a verb.
Who – Subject of VerbThe word who can only be used when it is the subject of a verb. That might sound confusing, but it just means it is like the words I, he, she, we, and they. Just like who, each of these words can only be the subject of a verb. The difference with who is that some people are unsure when to use who and whom. Well, confusing that pair is no different from confusing these pairs: I/me, he/him, she/her, and they/them.
should be who (subject of the verb existed)
(TV listing in magazine)
should be who (subject of will notify)
(notice in office)
Don't Get it? Use WhoIf you are unsure which to use, use who. Firstly, it is much more common than whom. Secondly, the use of whom is considered by many to be on its last legs in English. (Of course, Grammar Monster does not condone this practice, but if you don't have time to learn the difference, this advice will do for now. Of note, the pairings you/you and it/it make no distinction between being the subject of a verb or not, and who looks like it's heading in that direction too.)
Whom Is Never the Subject of a VerbWhom is never the subject of a verb. (Who, on the other hand, is always the subject of a verb.)
Whom after PrepositionsAlways use whom after prepositions. (Prepositions are words like to, with, by, on, in, near.)
should be by whom
(advertisement by estate agent)
Select the correct version:
SUBJECT OF A VERB?
Verbs are doing words (e.g., to dance, to sit, to fly, to think) (See lesson Verbs.)
The subject of a verb is the person or thing that is doing the action.
WHO = HE (A NEAT TRICK)
Substitute who with the word he. If that part of the sentence still makes sense, then who is almost certainly correct. (These are from the examples to the left.)
WHO = THEY
In order to perform this trick for plurals, you will have to substitute who with the word they.
WHOM = HIM (A NEAT TRICK)
Substitute whom with the word him. If that part of the sentence still makes sense, then whom is almost certainly correct.
(Whom and him are never the subjects of verbs. They are said to be in the objective case. This is why the trick works.)
WHOM = THEM
In order to perform this trick for plurals, you will have to substitute who with the word them.