Quotation (speech) marks for quotes of speech or writing.

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Quotation marks are used to show the actual words spoken or written. For example:
  • She said: "I love cake."
When the word that is used to introduce an idea which has been said or written, it is probably an example of reported speech. When this happens, you should not use quotation marks. For example:
  • She said that she loved cake.
  • She said that "she loved cake."
If you're unsure whether to precede a quotation with nothing, a comma, or a colon, then opt for a colon if either the introduction or the quotation is an independent clause. For example:
  • She offered the following advice: "Don't drink the water."
  • She stated: "Don't drink the water."

Quotation Marks to Show the Exact Words

Quotation marks can be used to show the actual words spoken or written.

  • Anna looked up and said: "It's true. Her scatty dog ate the office key." 
  • (The words within the quotation marks are the exact words that Anna said.)
  • Her performance proved beyond all doubt that she was "simply the best."  
  • (The words "simply the best" are a quote from a well-known song.)
  • The sign clearly states, "Thieves will be prosecuted."
  • (These are the actual words that are on the sign.)

Comma or Colon?

When introducing a quotation with words like He said, She whispered, It stated, etc., you can precede the quotation with a comma, a colon or nothing. It is the author's choice which to use, but if you would like a guideline, then use a colon for a quotation that is an independent clause and start the quotation with a capital letter.

  • The prisoner uttered: "Leave me alone." 

  • The minister shouted: "Do not worry. The next time I stand up here, I will have answers to these questions."

  • Granddad looked at me over the top of his glasses and said, "I've seen it all and done it all. I just don't remember any of it."  
  • (A colon would be better here.)

Comma after the Quotation

There is only a choice between a comma and a colon when the quotation is being introduced. Only a comma can be used after a quotation. 

  • Paul looked over the hedge and shouted: "You can keep half of the strawberries you pick."
  • (colon selected)
  • "You can keep half of the strawberries you pick," shouted Paul, looking over the hedge.
  • (In this example, a colon is not an option.)
In the example directly above, the comma after pick is shown inside the quotation mark. This is the most common convention in the US. Most writers in the UK would place the comma outside the quotation mark. This is a hotly discussed topic among grammarians. (The best advice is to adopt whatever practice your national newspapers follow.)

Read more about punctuation inside or outside quotation marks.

Just Quotation Marks

Quite often quotations are used without introductions like He asked, She yelled, They wrote, etc. In those instances, no punctuation is required to introduce the quotation.
  • I believe there really is "no place like home."
  • If this is the, "best skiing resort in France," I would hate to see the worst.
  • (The comma after the is wrong.)

Just for Actual Quotes

Quotation marks are not used for reported speech. (Reported speech is usually preceded by the word that.) Remember, only use quotation marks for actual quotes of speech or writing.
  • The secretary said: "The phones are dead."
  • The secretary said that the phones were dead.
  • (This is an example of reported speech.)  
  • The secretary said that "the phones were dead."
  • (Do not use quotation marks for reported speech.)
  • Edmund said that "he was a good boy".
  • (This is reported speech. Edmund actually said: "I am a good boy." There should be no quotation marks.)

It's Not a Hard and Fast Rule

Many writers do not adhere to the guidelines regarding the use of commas and colons with quotations. Nowadays, it is acceptable to introduce a quotation with a comma, a colon or nothing. In modern writing, the choice of punctuation depends largely on the desired flow of the text (i.e., how much the writer wants the reader to pause).

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