# Colons in References, Times, Ratios, and Titles

## Colons in References, Ratios, Times, and Titles

Colons are used as separators in references, times, ratios, and titles

## Colons in References

In a biblical reference, a colon separates chapter from verse. For example:
• Genesis 1:1 starts "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth."
• (Note there is no space before or after the colon.)
A colon is also used as a separator in a reading references. In a reading reference, the colon usually separates the volume from the page numbers.
• This topic is covered in Encyclopaedia Britannica 3:21-23.
• (This means volume 3 pages 21-23.)
Here is another example of colons used in a reference:
• Learn Chapter XIV:Section 4:Paragraph 6 by tomorrow.
• (There is no established format or ruling. Remember that colons in references are just separators for you to use.)

## Colons in Ratios

A ratio between two or more quantities is a way of measuring their sizes compared to each other. A ratio is shown with a colon as a separator. For example:
• It's myth that the ratio of women to men in Nottingham is 6:1.
• 5:3 is close to the Golden Ratio, which is represented by the Greek letter phi (Φ)
The first number of a ratio is called the "antecedent." The second number is called the "consequent."

## Times

In times, colons are used in timings greater than a minute. For example:
• The happiest hour of the day is between 19:00 and 20:00.
• (Here, the colon separates hours and minutes.)
• The marathon world record is 2:02:57.
• (Here, the colons separate hours, minutes, and seconds.)
• The 800m world record is 1:40.91.
• (In this example, the colon separates minutes and seconds. Note that tenths of a second are not separated by a colon but a point.)
In times of the day, using a period or nothing is also a common convention. For example:
• The alarm clock is set for 07:30.
• (0730 and 07.30 are also common.)

## Colons in Titles

In titles, a colon is often used to separate the main title from the subtitle. For example:
• "Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest"
• "How To Get Your Own Way: Who's Manipulating You?"
• "Grammar Rules: Writing with Military Precision"
Note that a semicolon, a comma, and "or" are also commonly used to separate a title from a subtitle. Colons often make better separators than the alternatives.